Šta je heterotopija?

Kris Marker, Putnici, 2008.

Heterotopije po Fukou jesu asocijativni prostori akumuliranih evokativnih elemenata. Muzej ili biblioteka su heterotopoije, na primer. Heterotopoija prema ovom kriterijumu može biti  fotografija, fotografski albumi, izložbe. Fotografije omogućavaju plovidbu kroz prostor i vreme. One su isto tako i ogledalo simultanog prisustva na više lokacija. Prema ovom kriterijumu i gradski prevoz je svojstvena heterotopija. Odrazi lica na prozorskom staklu autobusa daju osećaj prisustva u nekom paralelnom i virtuelnom prostoru, a motivi koji promiču kroz prozor evokativni su koliko i muzejski artefakti.

“Efekat ogledanja” o kojem govori Mišel Fuko u svom kratkom radu Drugi svetovi, može se iskoristiti kao asocijacija za refleksiju lica na prozorima gradskih autobusa i fotografske reprezentacije tih lica u virtuelnom prostoru. Heterotopija označava simultano prisustvo u više fragmentarnih svetova. Fuko to objašnjava na sledeći način:

„The mirror is, after all, a utopia, since it is a placeless place. In the mirror, I see myself there where I am not, in an unreal, virtual space that opens up behind the surface; I am over there, there where I am not, a sort of shadow that gives my  own visibility to myself, that enables me to see myself there where I am absent:  such is the utopia of the mirror. But it is also a heterotopia in so far as the mirror does exist in reality, where it exerts a sort of counteraction on the position that I occupy. From the standpoint of the mirror I discover my absence from the place where I am since I see myself over there. Starting from this gaze that is, as it were, directed toward me, from the ground of this virtual space that is on the other side of the glass, I come back toward myself; I begin again to direct my eyes toward myself and to reconstitute myself there where I am. The mirror functions as a heterotopia in this respect: it makes this place that I occupy at the moment when I look at myself in the glass at once absolutely real, connected with all the space that surrounds it, and absolutely unreal, since in order to be perceived it has to pass through this virtual point which is over there“ ( Focault, 1984:4).

Ukratko, posmodernistički prostor može se shvatiti kao vizualizovano putovanje napred i nazad kroz prostor i vreme. Virtuelni prostor simuliran uličnom fotografijom, na primer, jeste fragmentaran i simultano postoji sa ostalim fragmentarnim svetovima. Isto tako, i čovek je fragmentirano biće. On asocijacijama, putovanjima u prošlost i budućnost, a dok je prisutan u sadašnjosti, teži za jedinstvenošću.

Izvor:

Focault, Michel.1984. Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias. Architecture /Mouvement/ Continuité. 

Dostupno na: http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/foucault1.pdf. 

Piše: Venesa Mušović

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